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Citation Guide: AMA

In-Text Citations

AMA Manual 3.2; 3.3; 3.13.8

· Cite materials in text that are unpublished

   or not yet accepted for publication.

   Similar findings have been noted by Roberts
   and  H. E. Marman, MD (unpublished data, 2005).
 
· Cite some resources, such as Web URLs, in
   text when referring to the item itself, such

   as a Web site.

   Physicians may wish to consult the NIH Clinical
   Trials Registry (http://clinicaltrials.gov).

Reference List

AMA Manual 3.2; 3.5; 3.7; 3.13.8

· List references in numerical order at the

   end of the manuscript.

· List each item separately.

· Number references consecutively with
   arabic numerals in the order in which they

   are cited.

· Cite personal communication or items that
   are not published or accepted for
   publication in the text only and not in the

   Reference List.

· Give all authors names up to 6 in the
   Reference List. If there are more than 6
   authors, give the first 3 authors followed

   by "et al".

· Unpublished Materials in Reference List

   Presented at a Meeting But Not Yet

   Published

   1. Dubin D, Kallan M, Elliott M, Arbogast K,
       Cornejo R, Winston F. Risk of injury to
       restrained children from passanger air bags.
       Paper presented at: 46th Annual Meeting of the
       Association of the Advancement fo Automotive
       Medicine; September 2002; Tempe, AZ.
 
   Accepted for Publication But Not Yet

   Published

   2. Ofri D. Incidental Findings: Lessons From My
        Patients in the Art of Medicine. Boston, MA:
        Beacon Press. In press.

Footnotes (on the bottom of pages)

AMA Manual 3.6

· Cite each reference in the text, table, or
   figures in consecutive numerical order

   by superscript arabic numbers.

· Use arabic superscript numbers outside

   periods and commas. 

   As reported previously,1
      
· Use arabic superscript numbers inside

   colons and semicolons.

· Use commas without a space to separate

   other parts of a multiple citation.

   The derived data were as follows3,4;
      
· Use hyphens to join the first and last
   numbers if more than 2 consecutive
   references are cited at a given place in

   the manuscript. 

   As reported previously,1,3-8,19
  
· Do not place superscripts immediately
   after a number or an abbreviated unit of

   measure.

  NO:   The 2 largest studies to date included
           262 and 183 patients.
  YES: The 2 largest studies to date included

           26 patients2 and 18 patients.3

   NO:   The largest lesion found in the first study
           was 10 cm.2
  YES: The largest lesion found in the first
           study2 was 10 cm.
 
· Use * instead of a footnote number in the
   text and give the citation information in
   full size text in a footnote at the bottom of
   the page - IF a multiple citation
   superscript has 20 or more characters,

   spaces, or punctuation marks.

· Use † for the second such footnote on the
   same page and ‡ for the third such
   footnote on the same page.

   Footnote

  As reported previously,*
   

   References

  *References 18, 19, 40, 57, 61, 64, 74, 90, 93.
   
· Cite page numbers in the superscripts for
   more than one page from a single

   reference source. 

   Westman25(pp3,5),9 reported eight cases in
   which vomiting occured.
   
· Do not use ibid or op cit in listed
   references.