In Text Citations
1. If there is no author, use a few words of the title or the whole title, if it is short,
in place of an author name. For example: use (Merriam, 1993) for a book
entitled Merriam-Webster’s collegiate dictionary that was published in 1993.
Use double quotation marks around the title of an article, chapter, or website,
and italicize the title of a book, brochure, or report.
2. If there is no publication date, cite the author’s last name followed by a comma
and “n.d.” For example: (Smith, n.d.)
3. When quoting, always cite the author, year, and page number(s). For example:
“The ‘placebo effect’ disappeared when behaviors were studied in this manner”
(Miele, 1993, p. 276).
4. Within a paragraph, the year in subsequent references is not needed. For
example: Walker (2000) described the method...Walker also found...
5. For electronic sources that do not provide page numbers, use the paragraph
number, if available, preceded by the abbreviation “para.” For example: (Myers,
2000, para. 5)
1. Double-space entries.
2. Put first line of citation at left margin and indent other lines.
* Include author’s last name and initials of author’s first and middle names.
* Alphabetize by author’s or editor’s last name or by first significant word in title
(if there is no author or editor or if there is a group author).
4. Date - Place parentheses around publication year. If there is no date, n.d.
5. Title - Capitalize only first word of title and subtitle and all proper nouns.
6. Publication information
* Provide location of publisher. Exception: location of publisher not needed for
journals, newsletter, and magazines.
* Provide name of publisher in as brief form as possible. Example: Use
Eerdmans for William B. Eerdmans Publishers.
7. Electronic Resources
* APA does not require a retrieval date for most items.
* Preference for retreval information is DOI (Digital Object Indentifier).
* If there is no DOI, include the URL or name of database.