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Citation Guide: APA

Personal Communication (APA Manual 6.20, p. 179,7.11, pp. 214-215)


Unrecoverable Data: Letters, Emails, Memos, Personal Interviews, Telephone

Conversations, etc.

In Text:

     It was not clear that each retained this right (V. G. Nguyen, personal communication,
     September 28, 1998).


Archived Data: Newsgroups, Online Forums, Discussion Groups, Blogs, and Electronic

Mailing Lists.

In Text:

          Chalmers (2000) observed that sound could be used . . .

Reference List:

     Chalmers, D. (2000, November 17). Seeing with sound [Electronic mailing list message].
          Retrieved from