Skip to main content

Citation Guide: AMA

In-Text Citations

AMA Manual 3.2; 3.3; 3.13.8

· Cite materials in text that are unpublished

   or not yet accepted for publication.

   Similar findings have been noted by Roberts
   and  H. E. Marman, MD (unpublished data, 2005).
· Cite some resources, such as Web URLs, in
   text when referring to the item itself, such

   as a Web site.

   Physicians may wish to consult the NIH Clinical
   Trials Registry (

Reference List

AMA Manual 3.2; 3.5; 3.7; 3.13.8

· List references in numerical order at the

   end of the manuscript.

· List each item separately.

· Number references consecutively with
   arabic numerals in the order in which they

   are cited.

· Cite personal communication or items that
   are not published or accepted for
   publication in the text only and not in the

   Reference List.

· Give all authors names up to 6 in the
   Reference List. If there are more than 6
   authors, give the first 3 authors followed

   by "et al".

· Unpublished Materials in Reference List

   Presented at a Meeting But Not Yet


   1. Dubin D, Kallan M, Elliott M, Arbogast K,
       Cornejo R, Winston F. Risk of injury to
       restrained children from passanger air bags.
       Paper presented at: 46th Annual Meeting of the
       Association of the Advancement fo Automotive
       Medicine; September 2002; Tempe, AZ.
   Accepted for Publication But Not Yet


   2. Ofri D. Incidental Findings: Lessons From My
        Patients in the Art of Medicine. Boston, MA:
        Beacon Press. In press.

Footnotes (on the bottom of pages)

AMA Manual 3.6

· Cite each reference in the text, table, or
   figures in consecutive numerical order

   by superscript arabic numbers.

· Use arabic superscript numbers outside

   periods and commas. 

   As reported previously,1
· Use arabic superscript numbers inside

   colons and semicolons.

· Use commas without a space to separate

   other parts of a multiple citation.

   The derived data were as follows3,4;
· Use hyphens to join the first and last
   numbers if more than 2 consecutive
   references are cited at a given place in

   the manuscript. 

   As reported previously,1,3-8,19
· Do not place superscripts immediately
   after a number or an abbreviated unit of


  NO:   The 2 largest studies to date included
           262 and 183 patients.
  YES: The 2 largest studies to date included

           26 patients2 and 18 patients.3

   NO:   The largest lesion found in the first study
           was 10 cm.2
  YES: The largest lesion found in the first
           study2 was 10 cm.
· Use * instead of a footnote number in the
   text and give the citation information in
   full size text in a footnote at the bottom of
   the page - IF a multiple citation
   superscript has 20 or more characters,

   spaces, or punctuation marks.

· Use † for the second such footnote on the
   same page and ‡ for the third such
   footnote on the same page.


  As reported previously,*


  *References 18, 19, 40, 57, 61, 64, 74, 90, 93.
· Cite page numbers in the superscripts for
   more than one page from a single

   reference source. 

   Westman25(pp3,5),9 reported eight cases in
   which vomiting occured.
· Do not use ibid or op cit in listed